The manufacturer is the company responsible for building the specific model of this system. They may be responsible for designing all of the parts or simply assembling the machine.

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A processor is an integrated electronic circuit that performs the calculations that run a computer. A processor performs arithmetical, logical, input/output (I/O) and other basic instructions that are passed from an operating system (OS). Most other processes are dependent on the operations of a processor. A central processing unit (CPU) is also just known as a processor.

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A computer system is a collection of components that receive, process, manage, and present information. Computer hardware is the phyiscal parts of a computer system such as input/output (I/O) devices, central processing unit (CPU) and storage devices. The comptuer software is often known as programs and applications, and can be classfied as system and application software.

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The Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is a multinational American technology corporation that operates in more than 171 countries and has its headquarters in Armonk, New York. IBM works to produce and sell computer hardware, middleware and software. It also provides hosting and consulting services in various segments such as mainframe computers and nanotechnology. The company is also a major research organization that holds the highest record for annual U.S patents made by a business (up until 2020).


The Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) is a multinational American corporation with headquarters in Palo Alto, California. HP manufacturers and distributes a wide range of hardware components, software products and related services to consumers, businesses, large enterprises and clients in the government, health and education sectors. More specifically, the company specializes in developing computing, data storage, networking hardware and delivering services.

Cyrix Corporation

Cyrix Corporation was a microprocessor development company that was founded in 1988 in Richardson, Texas. It was founded by Tom Brightman and Jerry Rogers and the company was the primary supplier of math coprocessors for 286 and 386 microprocessors. Eventually, Cyrix Corporation was merged and dissolved in 1997.


Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company based in Illinois, United States. Motorola has designed and provided wireless network equipment. Eventually, due to financial difficulty, Motorola split into two independent companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions. Motorola Solution’s business and government customers consist mostly of wireless voice and broadband systems and public safety communications systems. Later, Motorola Mobility was acquired by Lenovo in 2014.


Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipelined Stages (MIPS) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by MIPS Computer Systems, now known as MIPS Technologies. The company is based in the United States and the earlier MIPS architecture implementations were 32-bit and later developed into 64-bit. Multiple versions of the MIPS architecture for 32-bit and 64-bit were implemented (I to V).


Ross Technology, Inc. (RTGX) was a semiconductor design and manufacturing company. They specialized in SPARC microprocessors and was founded in Austin, Texas in 1998 by Dr. Roger D. Ross, a computer scientist who headed Motorola’s Advanced Microprocessor Division. Ross Technologies, Inc. was fully integrated into Assured Information Security (AIS) in 2019 and in 2016, AIS acquired RTGX to form a strategic partnership that would benefit both companies.


Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI), previously known as SiliconGraphics prior to 1999 was an American high-performance computing manufacturer that produces computer hardware and software. The company was founded in California, United States in 1981 by Jim Clark. For the majority of time, SGI focused on 3D imaging and was a supplier of hardware and software in this market.


Fujitsu is a leading provider of computing and IT services, including microelectronics, telecommunications, air conditioning and laptops. Their expertise in computing technologies led to their creation of the first computer in Japan. Since then, Fujitsu has provided a wide range of computers such as personal computers, microcomputers, business computers and servers. In the processors realm, Fujitsu is best known for the production of the SPARC-compliant processor, SPARC64 VIIIfx (included in the world’s fastest supercomputer), FR-V microprocessors and ARM microprocessors. A notable feature of the Ftjitsu-FR processor is the incorporation of a floating point unit and digital signal processors for image processing.


Sun Microsystems, Inc. (Sun) was an American technology company that distributed computers, computer components, software, information technology services and created the Java programming language. Additionally, they were responsible for the development of the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), VirtualBox and SPARC microprocessors. The company has contributed significantly to the evolution of important computing technologies such as Unix, RISC processors, thin client computing and virtualized computing.


Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets. While it initially manufactured its own processors, the company later outsourced its manufacturing, a practice known as going fabless, after GlobalFoundries was spun off in 2009. AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations, personal computers and embedded system applications.


Hitachi is a producer and manufacturer of a wide variety of IT, AI, IOT, big data and infrastructure products. In the computer processor realm, Hitachi has contributed notably through their SuperH instruction set architecture which uses 32-bit RISC. SuperH or SH is utilized in embedded systems’ microprocessors and microcontrollers. A unique aspect of this SH architecture was the deployment of 16-bit instructions rather than 32-bit instructions. This ‘compressed instruction set’ proved to save memory and was adopted by other companies in the years to come.


The Western Design Center (WDC) develops semiconductor IP cores for chips such as the application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and consulting services for processor embedded systems. Additionally, the company produces an array of products such as simulators, emulators, assembler packages, linker packages and C compilers.


Broadcom provides several products for networking, broadband, storage, industrial and software industries. They are mainly involved in the development, manufacturing and designing of semiconductor products and software infrastructures. Currently, Broadcom produces leading LAN infrastructure namely routers, switches, modems and amplifiers.


Cypress Semiconductor Corporation designs and manufactures semiconductors and microcontrollers. They currently produce one of the only PSoC programmable chips in their industry, touch-sensing controllers, Bluetooth Low-Energy and USB connectivity solutions and PMIC Power Management integrated circuits. Cypress was later acquired by Infineon Technologies and is now a subsidiary of the company.


HAL Computer Systems was a computer manufacturer company that utilized the RISC computer architecture. The company was funded by Futjitsu (another notable processor manufacturer), due to the implementation of computer architecture based on the SPARC architecture. Over the years, HAL designed microprocessors based on the SPARC V9, SPARC 64, SPARC II, SPARC III and SPARC IV architectures, which were the company’s own implementations of SPARC architecture. Many of these implementations are utilized by Fujitsu in their microprocessors today.


NexGen was a fabless microprocessor designing company that was later purchased by AMD (another notable processor manufacturer). Their chips were manufactured by IBM Microelectronics, and stood out for their distinctive x86 architecture that utilized translation to run CISC-based x86 code on internal RISC architecture for chips. This ‘hybrid’ architecture was later deployed by AMD in their various chips, and its variation is still used in various chips today.


Originally started as a manufacturer for electronic calculators and chips for Texas Instruments, Metal Oxide Semiconductor technologies was a semiconductor company. It focused mainly on the fabrication and design for semiconductors, and microprocessors for home computers. One of the most notable products for MOS has been the 6501 microprocessor, which outperformed various competitors such as the Motorola 6800, as it was about 4 times faster.


Centaur Technology designs x86 CPUs, and was one of the first companies to allow for hardware encryption acceleration in the processors they designed. This encryption technology became known as the VIA PadLock, which was released in 2004. Since then, various companies such as AMD and Intel have created similar technologies and products. A product aspect that sets Centaur apart during its early years was its small chips, which are cost and energy efficient.


Zilog, Inc. supplies embedded system-on-chip (SoC) solutions for application-specific industrial and consumer markets. It manufactures 8-bit and 16-bit microcontrollers, and primarily focuses on the microcontroller market. Zilog is most known for the 8-bit microprocessors for its Z80 series. This series was extensively used in home computers during the 1980s like the TRS-80, MSX, Amstrad CPC, ZX Spectrum systems, as well as in arcade games like PacMan.


As the largest manufacturer of semiconductor chips in the world, Intel has made a big impact on computer architecture and hardware design. One of the most notable contributions of the company has been the x86 microprocessors, which utilize memory segmentation with a 16-bit address. These microprocessors are widely used in personal computers today, and are supplied to various computer manufacturers such as Dell, HP and Lenovo. In addition to semiconductor chips and microprocessors, Intel is one of the first developers of DRAM and SRAM chips which are also utilized in computers today.


Most popularly recognized in the microcomputers realm, the Digital Equipment Corporation has manufactured numerous products over the years. These products include the Programmed Data Processor series, which utilized 4-rack machines of 18, 24 and 36 bits. Moreover, the company is known for its architecture design known as the DNA or Digital Network Architecture which utilizes the Open Systems Interconnection model-compliant protocol for networking. Their Alpha processors were some of the fastest at the time, but could not compete with other processors that were cheaper and just as fast. The company was later acquired by Compaq, and then HP in May 2002.